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What is Glaucoma?

What is Glaucoma?Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve. High pressure (intraocular pressure) in the damages the optic nerve causing visual impairment.

Glaucoma is a progressive disease which can cause loss of central vision and blindness.

Most commonly seen glaucoma types are, "open angle", "closed angle", normotensive and congential (from birth) glaucoma.

Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly with pain in the eye and nausea. The visual loss can progress quickly. In patients with closed angle glaucoma, the anterior chamber is smaller than average. Since the chamber is too small, the trabecular meshwork situated in the angle formed where the cornea and the iris meet, blocks the pass of humor aqueous between the iris and lens.This reults in closed angle attack.

Open angle glaucoma is known also chronic glaucoma and there are no symptoms associated with it. Open angle glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate. It is painless, and the patient often does not realize that he or she is losing vision until the disease has progressed significantly. However, by the time the vision is impaired, the damage is irreversible.

Normotensive glaucoma is also known as normal-tension glaucoma or low-tension glaucoma. This type of glaucoma is not associated with elevated intraocular pressure but with some level of optic nerve damage.

Congenital glaucoma occurs at birth as a result of the drainage canals not forming properly because of abnormal increase in intraocular pressure.